Organ Systems and Evolution

Different things effect human’s health. One of numerous harmful addictions is smoking. About the perniciousness of cigarettes people are informed from their early age but unfortunately such kind of addiction is still spread. Cigarette smoking causes 443.000 deaths per one year, including nearly 49.000 deaths caused by secondhand smoke.

1. To understand how cigarette envenom people’s body we should find out what unhealthy components are included into it. Tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide are the main ones that affect our respiratory system. Tar includes several poisonous substances which stick to the cilia. The last one is the tine hairs placed on the lungs and their main aim is to protect the lungs from infection and filth. However, because of tar’s activity cilia’s function is impossible. Also it enshroud the respiration system’s walls, narrow the tubes which carry the bronchioles and reduce resilience of the lungs. The tobacco’s addictive component is nicotine. The other one poisonous matter is carbon monoxide which is found in exhaust fumes. It reduces the number of oxygen in the blood and in such way bereaves all the rest organs of oxygen. Moreover it becomes thicker and gives the load on the heart to pump. These components can cause such diseases as chronic bronchitis, asthma, sinusitis, emphysema, sore throat, lung cancer.

2. After respiration process takes place the deoxygenated blood carry a specific gas carbon dioxide to your lungs. Its main function is to balance the levels of carbon dioxide in the blood when it is carried out by kidney and lungs though smoking may lead to increasing levels of carbon dioxide in blood. While making a lung-full breath of cigarette the substance passes into blood and blinding to the oxygen receptor sites and extrude the oxygen molecules from red blood cells. Hemoglobin connected to carbon monoxide remade into carboxyhemoglobin and is unable to transfer oxygen.

3. Moreover, smoking can affect not only the respiratory system but several others. To set an example, it affects a circulatory system and heart. The blood vessels are affected by smoke. As these are the veins and arteries that transport blood to and from the heart, due to the negative affect there appear a risk of narrowing of blood vessels and blockages, palpitations, clotting of blood, increased blood pressure, increased and irregular heart rate, increased risk of strokes and heart attacks. In the nervous system and brain the result is sense problems. Person’s attention, memory and retention are suffering. Taking into account reproductive system, we can observe in men erective dysfunction, impotency while sterility is typical of both men and women smokers. Likewise, many problems such as early menopause and light weight of infants in pregnant women that smoke can occur.

4. In fact, there would be no available oxygen for cellular respiration without lungs respiration transporting oxygen in and altering it with carbon dioxide at the alveoli. Therefore, cellular respiration is correlated directly with the respiratory system.

5. Smokeless tobacco has less nitrosamine and provides substantially smaller risk of lung cancer and other diseases which are connected to smoking. Causing less mortality than smoking tobacco, this product, however, is still not harm-free. Smokeless tobacco roughly quadruples the risk to get such a disease as an oral cancer. One more downside of such kind of tobacco is yet unidentified systemic side effects that can appear because of these product.

To summarize, smoking cigarettes affects human’s body by making it suffer from tobacco and other poisonous substances. As a vary organ systems are affected by cigarettes smoke it increases the level of mortality.